|Challenge of Integrated Disciplinary Research
-Natural Resources Use by People in the Pacific Islands-
|日時：平成27年2月7日（土） 13：00 –
平成27年2月7日（土）に国際シンポジウム『Challenge of Integrated Disciplinary Research-Natural
Resources Use by People in the Pacific Islands-』が開催されます。皆様のご参加をお待ち申し上げます。
開会 司会：Mousourakis, G. (鹿児島大学）
趣旨説明：河合 渓 (鹿児島大学）
「Integrated Coastal Management Initiative in Gau Island, Fiji: The
and the Interesting Lessons Learned」
●Veitayaki, J. (南太平洋大学・フィジー)
- Indigenous village communities on Gau Island, Fiji have been undertaking
integrated coastal management over the last decade and are displaying a
unique commitment to better manage their environmental resources to ensure
better life for them and their children in the future. The people are continually
confronting pressing challenges that need to be overcome if the results
of the resource management activities are to be realized. The case demands
that resources are strategically used and that governance is strengthened
to convince the people that the better management of their environmental
resources, the mainstay of life in these islands, is their best development
All of the 16 villages and five settlements in Gau are part of the
Lomani Gau initiative to pursue sustainable development to improve their
lives as well as maintain the integrity of their ecological environment
that provides the critical support services. While the people are undertaking
sustainable development activities that protect their environment and enhance
their lives and those of their future generation, pressing challenges and
altering situation continue to pose difficulties that demand better governance.
In this presentation, I will share the lessons from some of the processes
and actions undertaken by the villagers in Gau to safeguard the environment
that they will present to their future generations as the basis of future
economic, social and cultural and ecological well being. The lessons from
the challenges faced and the activities taken to address the difficulties
will also be discussed.
「Re-examining the Rural Economy in the Pacific Islands: Accounting for Natural
Resource Use by Women in Coastal Communities」
●Bidesi, V. (南太平洋大学・フィジー)
- The discriminations embedded in gender relations resulting from existing
social norms, conventions and practices are often reproduced in the sphere
of economic activities which in turn influence the economic outcomes. Using
the coastal fisheries sector in the Pacific Island Countries, the paper
firstly reviews the shifts in rural development thinking through re-examining
the dominant theories and policy thrusts and their impacts on environment,
society and economy. It then goes on to discuss the context of sustainable
development in small island developing economies within this framework
where the sustainable livelihoods approach is most applicable. As a result,
the multiple roles of women form the cornerstone of such an approach in
rural coastal communities. Using an economic lens, the paper analyses some
of the misconceptions and discriminations that result in terms of costs
and benefits and how these translate into opportunities and constraints
faced by women in particular and the coastal fisheries sector in general.
The paper argues that integration of gender into economic analysis is important
not only to change economic thinking but also in designing of more effective
policies for natural resource use and sustainable development.
「Factors Influencing the Natural Resource Use in Semi Self-sufficient
●西村 知 (鹿児島大学)
- It is a very important issue how to use the natural resource in semi
self-sufficient communities where the people are heavily depending on the
agricultural products and marine resources in the community both for their
food and source of income. We argue what factors decide the mechanism of
the resource use by comparing several semi self-sufficient communities
in Fiji which locate in deferent geographical zones. We focus on the kinship
system (yavusa and mataqali), accessibility of each community to the main
market, intervention of the Government and NGO, religion and so on. We
also discuss some useful economic approaches to understand the mechanism
of the resource use such as Micro-Macro Loop (Shiozawa 1995) and the Thünen
「The Change and Challenges of Resource Management System in Fiji」
- The objective of our study is clarified of the current situation and
challenges of Fisheries Resource Management System in Fiji through a case
study of some Village.
There were no rules in some of the village in Fiji related to the management
of fishing grounds and fishery resources. Villager caught fish and shellfish
for consumption by their families and selectively caught shellfish of certain
sizes suitable for consumption.
However, with the spread of the monetary economy throughout the country,
and development and adoption of fishery equipment and devices, the way
fishery resources are used have dramatically changed. Specifically, there
have been shifts from self-sufficient use to commercial use of fishery
resources and from traditional fishing methods to efficient fishing methods.
As operators started harvesting more fishery resources than necessary for
self-consumption, a new lifestyle has been established in which extra fishery
resources harvested are exchanged for money at the markets. Changes in
economic environment and technological advancement have increased pressure
on fishing, threatening the fishery resource level, while the order established
during the era of self-sufficiency only has become insufficient for securing
sustainable resource use.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries introduced the Inside Demarcated
Areas Fishing License system in 2013. If the villagers want to sell their
fishing products in the market, it is necessary that they pay registration
fee and get the license. And they should follow the ministerial regulation.
However, households less than half had the license. And it was observed
that licensees do not correctly understand all the regulation rules. The
current system in which fishery operators are trusted to learn about the
regulation by themselves has limitations. If the Ministry of Agriculture
and Fisheries wants to enforce the regulation without exception, it is
necessary to notify fishery operators on the regulation details thoroughly.
And it is also necessary to examine a transmission course of the information.
「Comparison of Fisheries Management in Fiji」
●Kitolelei J. (鹿児島大学)
- Coastal fisheries management is important to Pacific Island communities,
as they are fisheries-dependent economies. This study aims to analyze coastal
fisheries management in Fiji and the difficulties that are faced within
achieving effective coastal fisheries management. The purpose of this research
is to analyze the current management system and practices in coastal communities.
The challenges faced in managing community-based fisheries in Fiji include
the lack of understanding of fishing boundaries, fishermen activities,
fisheries rules, fisheries practices and the impact of fisheries market.
「Comparison of Dietary Habit for Fijian Local People Using Stable
●小針 統 (鹿児島大学)
- Fijian dietary habits are compared among the three local villages.
We also analyzed stable isotope ratio of dietary items and Fijian kids’
hairs to explore an approach to compare dietary habits. Vegetables and
cereals are major dietary items and seafood was important as protein items
in all villages. Regardless of accessibility to urban areas, both locally
produced and market-derived items were equally used. The stable isotope
ratio was specific to seafood among dietary items and different for Fijian
kids’ hairs among the three villages, suggesting an useful approach to
compare their dietary habits. The stable isotope ratio of Fijian was close
to those of Indian and Chinese but represented more fish-eating.
「Bivalve Resources Use by Local People in Fiji」
●河合 渓 (鹿児島大学)
- The coastal village’s lifestyle in Fiji is mainly dependent on farming
and fishery. “Kaikoso” are a major fishery resource, and are collected
by women and sold as a source of income. Kaikoso are bivalve and feed on
organic matter in the seawater; they inhabit the coastal sites between
mangroves and coral reeves, and are more abundant than on other islands.
This presentation will demonstrate the ecological importance of Kaikoso
to mangrove-tidal flat ecosystems and the islands’ economic and social
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