国際島嶼教育研究センター
Toppage
Record of activities in 2018 at KURCPI

  • Research Seminar No.190, 18 September 2018
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building, 5th Floor

    「History of Ryukyus and Satsuma in Technology Exchange」
    YAMADA Kosei
     (Okinawa Prefecture Board of education)

     In the pre-modern era, the Satsuma clan and the Ryukyu kingdom had complex and diverse relationships. There were active people and objects coming and going. Also, exchange of various technologies was done. For example, in the Ryukyu Kingdom doctors and cooks frequently undergo training in China and Satsuma clan. They returned home and got a position in the country. Contributing to the country using technology in various scenes. For that reason, in the Kingdom of the Ryukyus, we devised a person who introduced technology into a samurai.
     Moreover, we used technology in various scenes to show the position of the Ryukyus. Satsuma clan also used technology to conduct diplomacy. We incorporated technology into our own culture. Training and diplomatic negotiations became opportunities for technology exchanges and had a major impact on the cultural formation in the region.


  • Research Seminar No.189, 23 July 2018
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building, 5th Floor

    「Ixodid Ticks in Amami-oshima Island and Lifecycle of Tick-borne Phleboviruses」
    MATSUNO Keita
     (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University)

     The recent (re)emergence of tick-borne viruses has complicated the epidemiological landscape of tick-borne infectious diseases, posing a significant challenge to public health systems worldwide. In Japan, fatal cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus infections were recently reported. However, to understand whole virus populations in ticks, the genetic diversity of viruses and/or low virus titers in ticks have hampered us. Thus, we have employed a comprehensive screening method to identify a variety of viral pathogens in ticks. By far, more than three-thousand ticks were collected in Japan (including approximately a hundred ticks collected in Amami-oshima and Tokunoshima islands), and a variety of viruses was discovered in various species of ticks. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that phleboviruses in ticks, including SFTSV, have co-evolved together with ticks. While our screening has not identified any viruses in the island ticks, monitoring on pathogens may need to be continued to prepare for the future emergence of tick-borne diseases.


  • Research Seminar No.188, 18 June 2018
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building, 5th Floor

    「Several Numerical Calculations for Tsunamis and the Characteristics of the Isolated Islands in Japan based on Multivariate Analyses」
    KAKINUMA Taro
     (Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University)

     First, two numerical models for water motion are introduced, i.e., a 3D Eulerian method, and a 2D Lagrangian method. The tsunamis due to both a submarine earthquake, and a landslide, are simulated, using these numerical methods. Second, the characteristics of the isolated islands in Japan, are discussed based on the principal component analysis, as well as the cluster analysis. I focus attention on three parameters of isolated islands: economic power, potential capacity, and inhabitability.


  • Research Seminar No.187, 28 May 2018
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building, 5th Floor

    「Island Biogeography of Terrestrial Snail from Islands of Sabah, Malaysia」
    Phung Chee Chean
     (Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah)

     Islands always held special attraction to scientist as model systems in biogeography and evolutionary studies. In Sabah, there are about 500 islands with various degree of isolation and size, and have experienced different climatic or historical processes. Unfortunately, the up-to-date knowledge about the island biodiversity in Sabah is scarce in spite of the fact that Sabah is situated within one of the megabiodiversity hotspots. Using land snail as subject, an annotated checklist of land snail from 24 west coast islands of Sabah was presented and was explained the effect of island area, isolation on species composition and species richness. The phylogeography pattern of selected land snail species (i.e. Leptopoma pellucidum) from northwest islands was also demonstrated to understand the present genetic distribution and structure, and infer underlying historical processes by calibrating the tree with molecular clock. A total of 67 land snail species were documented from 24 west coast islands of Sabah based on 133 systematic sampling plots, collection database and published records. Land snail composition pattern showed strong nestedness pattern and was influenced by both isolation and area. The results of this study demonstrated that the species richness on Sabah’s island was largely determined by the island area rather by its isolation, which in agreement with most studies on continental islands. With respect to phylogeography of L. pellucidum from northwest islands, the results revealed that its genetic structure was categorized into three major lineages. Surprisingly, time-calibrated tree showed that the genetic divergence time does not correspond with island isolation due to sea level rising during Last Glacial Maximum. The lineages were estimated to have diverged during the middle and late Pleistocene. Earlier periodic interglacials and Pleistocene climate fluctuation might cause intra-specific divergence. This study reveals biogeography and evolutionary processes of Borneo Island.


  • Research Seminar No.186, 23 April 2018
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building, 5th Floor

    「Life history of Ryukyu-ayu Plecoglossus altivelis ryukyuensis in Amami-oshima Island」
    KUME Gen
     (Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University)

     The Ryukyu-ayu Plecoglossus altivelis ryukyuensis is a subspecies of the ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, which is distributed widely from Japan and the Korean Peninsula to northern Vietnam. The subspecies is commonly called the “Yaji” and has been consumed locally since ancient times. P. altivelis ryukyuensis have some different morphological features from P. altivelis altivelis. Their size is small: adults reach only 10–15 cm total length. The subspecies now inhabits only Okinawa Island and Amami-oshima Island. The wild population of Okinawa Island has been extinct since 1978. Fry produced by parent fish from Yakugachi River on Amami-oshima Island were stocked into the rivers of Okinawa Island in 1992, and some landlocked populations have now successfully settled in reservoirs in northern Okinawa Island. The subspecies was designated as critically endangered by the Kagoshima Prefecture and Ministry of the Environment, and fishing them has been completely banned since 2004. Although administrative support contributes to the conservation of the Ryukyu-ayu, the subspecies is continually facing the risk of extinction. We have practiced various life history studies on the subspecies intended to conserve them. In the presentation, I introduce the latest research results on their life history and current outreach programs.


  • Research Seminar No.185, 19 February 2018
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building, 5th Floor

    「Thoughts and Needs during Pregnancy and the Delivery Period of Mothers with Experience of Delivery outside Their Home Island: Through Focus Group Interviews」
     NAKAO Yuko and INOUE Naomi
    (Kagoshima University Graduate School of health Sciences)

     The objective of the present study is to elucidate feeling and needs of mothers living on remote islands who have no choice but to give birth outside their home island due to the absence of delivery facilities on the island. Focus group interviews were conducted on 10 mothers who had experienced delivery outside their home island by dividing them into those who were natives of their home island(n=4) and those were not (n=6).
     Analysis showed that mothers who had experienced delivery outside their home island faced the “difficulty of living as a pregnant woman on an island with no obstetric facilities”, “ frustration of living outside home island”, and “lingering financial concerns”, amid which they had the “realization that family is a big presence”, and that they spent their pregnancy and delivery period based on the feeling of “wanting to protect this pregnancy”. In addition, the following needs were identified: “want enhancement of support for living outside home island”, “want to give birth on home island”, “want advice at time of prenatal checkup”, “want opportunities to consult midwives”, and “want increased cooperation between home island and hospitals”.
     These results indicate that enhanced support is necessary for women living on their home island and mothers living outside their home island, and that mothers who are not natives of their home island have a greater need for support during pregnancy. Enhancement of support systems including provision of information regarding matters such as delivery outside home islands and the use of peer support groups was considered necessary as support for mothers giving birth outside their home island.


  • Research Seminar No.184, 22 January 2018
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building, 5th Floor

    「Koreans of the South Sea Islands: The Copra industry and the Koreans in Yap Island during the Japanese Period」
    CHO, Sung Youn
     (Research Center for the Pacific Islands, Kagoshima University: Jeju National University)

     The objective of the present research is to investigate into the history of a Korean family who lived in Yap Island of the South Sea Islands during the Japanese colonial period. By investigating into the Japanese community that lived in Yap Island which was one of the main islands in the South Sea Islands, I will provide a review of adaptive strategy of Koreans who were part of the community.
     The person that I interviewed was Doosung Ko, who lives in Jeju Island in Korea now. He was born in 1934 at Yap Island, lived there until he was 7 years old, and returned to Jeju Island in 1940.
     Father Myeongryoe Ko was born in 1902, opened a store, and engaged in the work of collecting Copra from the locals. Ko went around the island to collect coconuts. In the late 1930s, he opened hospital and restaurant in Yap Island and became a successful businessman who rubbed shoulders with Japanese. In 1940, he came back to Jeju Island and escaped the pacific war.
     Meanwhile, Hwang Young-sam, who lived on the island of Satawal Island, and collected Copra by mobilizing residents. He was killed by the villagers, and after that event, Hijikata Hisakatsu entered the island with his disciples, and acts as a Copra collector on the other hand, as an artist, as a folk scholar.
     The two cases show me about Koreans activities how to engage in commercial activities, unlike those of the Koreans who were forcefully mobilized during the Pacific War. It would have been possible for the Korean people to gain recognition in their own networks by gaining recognition from the Japanese community in order to succeed in the South Sea Islands.












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