Record of activities in 2016 at KURCPI

  • Research Seminar No.174, 12 December 2016
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Geology and Fossils of the Upper Cretaceous Himenoura Group on the Koshikishima Islands」
     MIYAKE Yuka
    (Satsumasendai City Board of Education)

      The Upper Cretaceous Himenoura Group is widely distributed in western Kyushu, Japan. The group yields abundant non-marine to marine molluscan fossils (e.g., inoceramids and ammonoids) in the Koshikishima Islands.
      In the northern part of Shimokoshiki-shima Island, the Himenoura Group is composed mainly of fluvial, tidal flat, shoreface, shelf, and slope deposits in the Upper Cretaceous lower to middle Campanian. Tidal flat deposit contains large oyster (Crassostrea) aggregations and several vertebrate fossils. Shoreface and shelf deposits contain large fossils as bivalves and ammonoids and microfossils as radiolarians. Thick debris-flow deposits in the slope facies in middle to upper Campanian on western Nakakoshiki-shima Island. These deposits commonly yield shallow marine and brackish-water bivalves, in addition to poorly preserved non-marine vertebrate fragments.
      This article addresses stratigraphy and fossils of the Upper Cretaceous Himenoura Group on the Koshikishima Islands. Particularly, we pay attention to the stratigraphy and fauna of the lower to middle Campanian that became clear with fossils such as inoceramids or ammonoids.

  • Research Seminar No.173, 14 November 2016
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「The Community Medicine Training on Low Birthrate and Aging」
     OWAKI Tetsuhiro
    (Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University)

      Japan of low birthrate and aging breaks into the population decline society which I have not experienced all over the world until now. In front of population to decrease, how should we build and maintain it surely? The local government must present the policy not to know whether it is a correct answer. Then how does the medical care turn out?
      A post-baby boom generation becomes advanced elderly aged people in 2025, and the number of the death increases in Japan. An old age medical care becomes predominate of the Medicine, and the Japanese overall medical care peaks in about 2040. Afterwards, to correspond suddenly change and to support medical environment to reduce, we consider that what kind of training is demanded, and what kind of education is demanded as medical school. Moreover, I introduce “Remote island, community medicine training” to all the medical course sixth graders, “The national medical student summer remote island training” that I offer to the hoping medical students of the whole country, “Community medicine training camp in Kitayama” and “community medicine training camp in Satsuma-cho” that I provide to the medical system student of Sakuragaoka, and “The remote island training” to a local frame medical student.

  • Research Seminar No.172, 26 September 2016
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Fisheries Development in Insular Areas: An Implication of the Case in Southwestern Madagascar」
     IIDA Taku (National Museum of Ethnology)

      In such countries where fisheries are industrialized as Japan, most innovations concerning coastal fisheries are achieved through cooperation among fishermen’s association, academic engineers, and device makers. In isolated islands or insular countries, however, such innovations cannot be expected or take exorbitant time to be introduced. To solve this problem, individual fishermen have to be innovative enough which has been the case in coastal areas of Madagascar. Although this island is fourth largest in the world and should be called dwarf continent, it shares insular conditions such as immaturity of public transport or close link between fishery and industry sectors.
      This talk examines individually achieved innovations observed in this area and specifies conditions enabling them. The examples especially examined include: 1. wooden spearguns having been widespread around 1998; 2. wooden lures for squid having been widespread around 2003; beach seine nets made of secondhand tire, having been observed in 2008 but the date of whose introduction is not clear; 4. night-diving equipment with LED torch having been widespread around 2008. All these gears are invented by combining strange factory-made materials with ordinary materials and fishing techniques. As catalyzing factors of the invention processes, we can point out regular practice of bricolage and common sharing of individual idea.

  • Research Seminar No.171, 11 July 2016
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Presqu'i?le?ite? and Absolute Waterfrontage: Finger Islands and Canal Estate Development on Australia’s Gold Coast」
     HAYWARD Philip (Research Center for the Pacific Islands, Kagoshima University)

      The Gold Coast, an urban conurbation stretching along the Pacific seaboard and adjacent hinterland of south east Queensland, is now Australia’s sixth largest city. Its rapid growth over the last six decades has had major impacts on the rivers, estuaries, coastline and associated ecosystems of the area. This article addresses one particular aspect of this, the development of estates of ‘finger islands’ (narrow, peninsular residential areas with direct waterfrontage) and the canalised waterways that facilitate them. The article first discusses these landscape features in the context of earlier estates in Florida that provided a model for Australian developers and then turns to consider the specific nature of a number of developments in south eastern Queensland. These discussions also facilitate a conceptual inquiry into how finger islands, canal estates and associated waterways can be conceptualised, drawing on the French concept of presqu'i?le?ite? (‘almost islandness’) and the Japanese/Ryukyuan concept of shima (insular neighbourhood).

  • Research Seminar No.170, 27 June 2016
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Geology on Subduction Zone Mega-Earthquakes」
     KITAMURA Yujin
    (Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University)

      The Japanese islands comprise an island arc formed by plate subduction. Along the island arc, plate subduction induces various geological processes such as seismogenesis, volcanism and formation of accretionary prism. The accretionary prism is a geologic body formed with accreted sediments derived from the oceanic plate subducting beneath the continent. Investigating the accretionary prism is a clue for understanding fundamental questions on the formation of the island arc and the earthquake generation.
      What geology would tell us on earthquakes? In this talk, I introduce a geological approach to depict an image of subduction plate boundary process underground exampled from the Japanese island arc, a frontier on subduction zone earthquake. There are a couple of outcrops of fossils of earthquake which discovered firstly on the globe. We review the story how geology revealed the deformation process of such kind of rocks and discuss the seismogenic zone on the plate boundary.

  • Research Seminar No.169, 30 May 2016
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Search for Therapeutic Drug Candidates against Diseases Characteristic of South Kyushu from Southern Medicinal Plants and Marine Organisms」
     HAMADA Toshiyuki (Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University)

      Animals and plants create many organic compounds (primary and secondary metabolites) in their own bodies to use in order to survive in their ecosystems. Natural products chemistry is a scientific research field concerned with identifying these organic compounds and for elucidating answers concerning the phenomenon of life. It has also been deployed to assist in developing drugs by characterizing the active components from animals and plants which have been used for the treatment of human diseases and injuries.
      As part of our research, we are examining the chemistry of several natural products specific to Kagoshima. In this presentation we introduce our trial to identify plant and marine organism compounds that can be effective against Ciguatera fish poisoning and Adult T-cell Leukemia, diseases characteristic of southern Kyushu.

  • Research Seminar No.168, 25 April 2016
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Effects of Ecotourism on Physiology and Behavior in the Amami Rabbit on Amami-Oshima Island」
     SUZUKI Mariko
    (Research Center for the Pacific Islands, Kagoshima University)

      The Amami rabbit (Pentalagus furnessi) is an endemic species on Amami-Oshima and Tokunoshima Islands. This species often uses the road or open area for excreting and foraging during the night. The night-tours, searching the nocturnal animals by the automobile, has been increasing recently in Amami-Oshima Island.
      The impact of human recreational activity on wildlife has been studied on a lot of species. These activities often cause animals to change their behavior and/or habitat use, and eventually population decline. In order to evaluate the impacts of tourism to the Amami rabbit in Amami-Oshima Island, two kinds of research have been conducted. First, the details of the Amami rabbit’s road use were analyzed by counting the fecal pellets, combining with genetic individual identification using fecal DNA, and examining camera traps. Secondly, the stress response of the Amami rabbit to tourism was investigated by measuring fecal cortisol levels. In addition, the stress levels were compared not between nights but between roads, in which traffic differs.
      The Amami rabbits excreted in particular spots, and the spot mostly used by them was estimated to be used more than 4 individuals. They showed not only life activities such as excreting and foraging but also social activities such as resting, sniffing and chasing on the road. These results indicate that the road is an important place for the Amami rabbit. However, the frequency of their road use and fecal cortisol levels was not correlated with the traffic during the night. On the other hand, the fecal cortisol levels from the samples collected on the road used for night tourism were higher than those did on the farm road with little traffic. I will discuss the effect of tourism to their behavior and physiology with consideration for their ecology such as mating season, food availability and predator existence too.

  • Research Seminar No.167, 7 March 2016
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Current Situation and Problems of Passion Fruit, Avocado and Other Tropical Fruits Cultivation in Japan」
     KONDO Tomohiro
    (Center for Regional Innovation, Miyazaki University)

      Interest in tropical fruits cultivation has been increasing recently in south-west Japan, because global warming is going on. Detrimental effects of global warming on citrus, peel puffing, low acid content, shortage of storage period and so on, have been appearing, and so solution strategy, such as introduction of tropical fruits, is now demanded. Mango is major tropical fruit in Japan, but recently cultivation area does not increase partly due to increase of fuel cost for heating. And so, tropical fruits which can grow with low fuel cost is demanded.
      Passion fruit can be cultivated as an annual crop so fuel cost for heating is very low and recently passion fruit cultivation in Japan mainly for fresh consumption has been increasing rapidly. Avocado has relatively high tolerance against chilling stress, the strongest cultivar can survive ? 6 °C condition, and avocado is thought to be able to be cultivated without heater in south-west Japan. Now avocado cultivation begin in Miyazaki, Ehime, Kumamoto and so on.
      Passion fruit and avocado cultivation in Japan have just started and there is little experience, and so there are lot of problems. Current situation and problems of passion fruit and avocado cultivation and research results and future plan will be presented.

  • Research Seminar No.166, 15 February 2016
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「The International Politics of Whaling: Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling in the Arctic Island of Greenland and the International Whaling Commission」
     TAKAHASHI Minori
    (Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University)

      The International Whaling Commission (IWC) was established in 1948 with the goal of adequately preserving whale populations and enabling an orderly development of the whaling industry. It oversees only 13 larger species of the existing 85 species of whales in the world, but nonetheless remains the main international organ that manages whales not only as a natural resource, but as an industry too. One of the forms of whaling managed and regulated by the IWC is aboriginal subsistence whaling. The definition of aboriginal subsistence whaling was set at the 33rd annual meeting of the IWC held in 1981.

    • Aboriginal subsistence whaling means whaling, for purposes of local aboriginal consumption carried out by or on behalf of aboriginal, indigenous or native peoples who share strong community, familial, social and cultural ties related to a continuing traditional dependence on whaling and on the use of whales.

      The Inuit and Yupik in Alaska, US, Makah in the state of Washington, US, Chukchi Yupik in the Chukotka region in Russia, Kalaallit in Greenland, Denmark, and the islanders of Bequia in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, have enjoyed the quotas for this type of whaling. Even after commercial whaling drew wide criticism and the IWC adopted a moratorium on it at its 34th annual meeting in 1982, aboriginal subsistence whaling continued and became the main form of whaling overseen by the IWC. However, aboriginal subsistence whaling was not always viewed by the IWC as a right that needs to be recognized. In this presentation, by taking Greenland as a case study, I shed light on the discrepancies between the IWC system and the reality on the ground.

  • Research Seminar No.165, 25 January 2016
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Thirty-Seven Years of Contributions as a Marine Botanist in Kagoshima University」
     NORO Tadahide
    (Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University)

      Phycological research at Kagoshima University was pioneered in the 1950s by Dr. Kiichi Okada, who studied the fresh water alga Thorea in Sendai River, and Prof. Tsuyoshi Tanaka, who studied Porphyra. Thereafter, Prof. Koji Nozawa studied phytoplankton in the Kagoshima Bay and at sea-grasses (in the 1970s). Prof. Hiroshi Itono was a pioneer scuba diver at Kagoshima University, and he authored a book in 1980s, on the taxonomy of Ceramiales. Prof. Akio Inoue was the director of KURCPI, and he studied toxic phytoplankton in Tahiti and southern Japan in 1970s.
      The author started his research career on blue-green algae in the Amami Islands when he was an undergraduate student at Kagoshima University. He studied Corallinaceae in the Barren Sea (Isoyake) during his graduate course at Hokkaido University. Then he returned to Kagoshima and studied a red tide organism Chattonella marina in the Kagoshima Bay and examined how the cyst could survive the winter.
      Further, he became inclined to conspicuous seaweeds, such as Sargassum spp. in southern Japan and studied the taxonomy and ecology of this genus in the Indo-Pacific area. At KURCPI, he underwent an internationally certified training course for Indonesian instructors of fishery schools and drove the research project in Yap. During his experience there, he determined that the extracts of Monpano-ki in (Heliotropium foertherianum), isolated in Okinawa, were effective against Ciguatera toxin.
      In this seminar, the author will summarize his experience with research activities in Kagoshima.

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