Record of activities in 2012 at KURCPI

  • Research Seminar No.134, 3 December 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Forest Resources in Papua and West Papua, Indonesia: Problems and Challenges」
     HIDAYAT Herman
    (Research Center for the Pacific Islands, Kagoshima University)

      Interaction between people and forest resources in Papua and West Papua, Indonesia, is very close. Obviously, dependence towards forest resources is very strong due to social needs and subsistence. For instance, timber and non-timber such as food, medicine, hunting animals, fuel, etc., are still being exploited from forest resources. Forest resources could be symbolized as a ‘mother’ because forests give ‘life’ for Papua’s community, and they have been well managed by local communities for several decades.
      Forest degradation occurred in the Soeharto regime (1967-1998) when the government treated forest resources as a ‘commodity’ for economic development. The government issued several logging (HPH) and industrial timber plantation concessions (HTI) for the private sector to provide ‘timber’ as raw materials for forestry industries (sawmill, furniture, plywood, pulp and paper industry, etc.). The development of the forestry industry continued in the Reformation Era (1999-present), whose characteristic was ‘decentralization’. Local governments were to manage their own natural resources. In the case of economics, for instance, by establishing the ‘Corporative Sector’ (Koperasi) the local government of Papua could issue logging (HPH) and industrial timber plantation (HTI) and palm oil estate concessions until it reached approximately 1000 hectares. Thereafter, forest degradation and deforestation have occurred because of a lack of commitments for establishing sustainable forest management, law enforcement and serious inspection from stakeholders, especially central and local governments.
      Big soil erosion in Wasior, Teluk Wondama Regency (West Papua) on October 4, 2010, and a large flood in March 2007 in the Sentani region (Papua) occurred probably because of the consequence of forest degradation and deforestation. The challenge of how to recover deforestation in the upstream (Cycloop conservation) area will have a good effect on hydrologic and economic sources downstream (Lake Sentani). Local governments also need to empower socio economics of local people for reforestation.

  • Research Seminar No.133, 5 November 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「How it came to be accepted that the genealogy of the Amami Islands was annihilated by fire: The theory in relation to modern and recent history」
     YUGE Masami
    (Council for the Protection of Cultural Properties of Amami-city)

      The general belief that written records of Amami genealogy were burned away and destroyed may have been derived from Historical Stories of Amami dating back to the end of the 19th century, but there are no historical records that directly prove the case. In reality, the genealogy that was presumed annihilated still exists. The analysis of the genealogy revealed that the core problem results from the fact that island officials in office since the Ryukyu Kingdom had their social status reduced to peasantry. In addition, the lineage does not concern roughly 98% of the Amami population. Here, I would like to shed light on the nonexistence of the destroyed genealogy and to elucidate the feudal clan’s underlying attempt to re-form and re-compose its social status by submitting their version of the pedigree. However, we need to acknowledge the fact that this theory continued to be believed for over a century. It is necessary to grasp its background from the historical perspective of the Amami Islands. This will also provide one of the important themes in reviewing the future methodologies of historical research on the Amami Islands.

  • Research Seminar No.132, 15 October 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Structure of social change in the prehistoric age on the Ryukyu Archipelago」
     SHINZATO Takayuki
    (Research Center for Archaeology, Kagoshima University)

      Prehistoric age on the Ryukyu Archipelago is called the shell mound age. It was assumed that the then life was stable under coral reef environments. But it is hardly believed that the stable life lasted for 8,000 years changelessly on these islands.
      In respect of exchange and trade activities, there are viewed distinctive periods that stemmed from a social change in the shell mound age. They are largely classified as two periods: the early shell mound period and the late shell mound period. The former was mainly affected by change of earthenware culture through sporadic exchange with Yamato. The latter was the period in which a social gap among individuals arose from large-scale shell trade activities on the base of the Ryukyu Archipelago. The shell trade activities at that time was greatly influenced by a trend of local consumers, and the main districts of supply and trade as well as locations of villages supposedly varied according to habitats of shellfish. Accordingly, depending on the trend of local consumers in each of the islands, social structures changed into either complex or simplified. This reveals a limitation of island-type trade society, which is hunting and gathering. In this respect, an agricultural society at the Gusuku period, which traded with Yamato and China, is distinct from the hunting and gathering society.

  • Research Seminar No.131, 20 September 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Explosive Subaqueous Eruptions and Their Products」
     KANO Kazuhiko
    (The Kagoshima University Museum)

      We have almost no opportunity to detect and observe explosive subaqueous eruptions unless volcanic gas bubbles, volcanic ashes, pumices, or scoriae emerge out of water or an eruption plume breaks the water surface and thrusts into the air. The mode and scale of eruption could be restored by collectively modeling the physical processes that can produce the features of the eruption products recovered by chance from the water bottom or preserved in strata. Working models proposed so far for explosive subaqueous eruptions will be introduced together with plausibly corresponding products. As a case that took place in close proximity to the place we reside, the explosive subaqueous eruption that formed the Wakamiko caldera will be discussed also.

  • Special Research Seminar, 28 July 2012
    15:00-16:30, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Co-Management of Coastal Resources in Fiji: Focused on FLMMA and MPAs」
     KAKUMA Shinichiro
    (Okinawa Prefectural Government)

      The situations of coastal resources co-management in 6 fishing villages and western remote islands were studied in 2003 and 2005. Fiji Locally Managed Marine Area (FLMMA) network has developed recently to manage coastal resources in Fiji. The Fisheries Department of the government, the University of the South Pacific and NGOs lead their respective FLMMA sites. At one of the sites, Ucunivanua village, the stock of a bivalve “Kaikoso” has increased even outside of a MPA. The community has monitored the results of the management. At Sasa village gill-netting had been banned by chiefs in the district since 1990. Although the resources have been conserved for subsistence fishers, commercial hand-line and spear fishing boats could be increased to sustainable level. At Kiuva village Bech-de-mer fisheries are active and may need proper management soon. Flesh water aquaculture and sub-surface fish aggregating devices would work as the alternative income sources for the management. Resource ownership of coastal waters may return to the communities affecting future direction of FLMMA.
      Coral reef eco-system sustains reef fisheries. However, conflicts between the eco-system conservation and the fisheries development would spread. The conflicts will be discussed through the cases of MPAs, coral reef conservation and eco-tourism in Fiji and Okinawa. When deciding the sizes of MPAs, we need to balance the ideas between bio-diversity conservation and sustainable fisheries. While obtaining quantitative data on spill-over effects through scientific researches, we should start participatory adaptive management to decide the sizes of MPAs. For the restoration of the damaged coral reefs, conservation should come first and anthropogenic disturbances to the coral reefs should be eliminated as much as possible. The co-existence of human and coral reefs, however, is also another important goal for the Asia-Pacific. Eco-tourism in Fiji needs to be within the carrying capacity and to minimize the impacts on fishing and food culture in the villages

    Keywords: FLMMA, MPA, fisheries management, coral reef conservation, eco-tourism

  • Research Seminar No.130, 9 July 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Language Revitalization on Jersey, Channel Islands」
     Henry JOHNSON
    (Kagoshima University)

      Jersey’s historic cultural setting is very much linked with mainland France, and there continues to be close relations, even though the island’s political allegiance is with Britain. In this context, for many centuries the lingua franca of the island was Jerriais (sometimes referred to as Jersey Norman French, Jersey French or patois), a branch of the Norman language spoken in several varieties around the island. The legal system includes Jersey Legal French, and French was and is still used in some political contexts. While many islanders would have spoken Jerriais alongside English and French, thus offering trilingualism as a necessary means of in-island, inter-island (i.e., with the other Channel Islands) and off-island (i.e., with mainland France or Britain) communication, throughout the twentieth century Jerriais went through a stage of rapid decline. Nowadays, Jerriais is spoken by only a small percentage of islanders, estimated in 2001 to be around 2874 people (3.2 percent of the population), with just 113 noting Jerriais as their first language. However, as an historical aspect of island culture the language maintains a high degree of importance in the present day in connection with island identity and heritage. Over the past two decades, for instance, Jerriais has occupied a space of immense cultural importance, and language revitalization is often a feature of educational and political discourse, as well as a topic of interest by linguistic researchers. On the one hand Jerriais continues to decline in terms of the number of native speakers, yet on the other hand there is increasing acknowledgement of the language as part of the island’s cultural heritage and identity, and subsequently there has been increase in public awareness and interest in its promotion and preservation. It is from this perspective that this paper explores Jerriais in terms of is internal and external dimensions in connection with language revitalization.

  • Research Seminar No.129, 25 June 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Island Partnership and Barter Economy: Prospects from the environmental history of Amami and Okinawa Archipelagos」
     ANKEI Yuji
    (Yamaguchi Prefectural University)

      Recently, we have published some 2000 pages of scientific articles, records of narratives, and a big sourcebook on the environmental history of human life in Amami and Okinawa Islands.
      This paper aims at an ethnographic reconstruction of barter economies that flourished during Taisho Era (1912-1926) between neighbor islands in Ryukyu Archipelago, belonging to Kagoshima and Okinawa Prefectures, Japan. Based on three decades’ field survey in southern islands of Japan, I would like to have an overview of barter economies that once flourished in these islands before World War II. The island partners I studied were chosen from the following areas from south to north: 1) Yaeyama, 2) Miyako, 3) Okinawa, 4) Amami Ohshima, 5) Tokara, and 6) Tane-Yaku Islands.
      Malinowski (1922) found that Trobriand Islanders practiced kula, a circle of close partnership among neighbor islands, which was accomplished through ceremonial exchange of prestige goods, and he also described their gimwali, barter of daily necessities as food. This report is a study of gimwali of southern Japan around the time of the publication by our ancestor of fieldwork. It is an attempt to the systematic study of barter and primitive money in Japan, and to its implications for the development of partnerships between Asian neighbors in today’s global economic crisis.

  • Research Seminar No.128, 15 May 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Fukuoka Mosque: A case of recent Muslim’s community development in Japan」
    (Research Center for Society and Culture, Indonesian Institute of Sciences)

      This is a work-in-progress of my new research endeavor on the religious life of migrant community in Japan, particularly among the Indonesian Muslims. In 2003-2004 I conducted a study on the Indonesian migrant community ? the majority is over stayers - in Oarai, Ibaraki prefecture, that mostly Minahasan-Christians. In 2004-2005 I observe the Indonesian migrant community ? mostly kenshusei -around Shin-Anjo mosque. Last year I began to observe the Muslim community around the newly constructed mosque in Hakozaki, Fukuoka. The Muslims in Fukuoka Mosque consist of different nationalities, although Egyptian, Bangladeshi and Indonesian seems the dominant groups. The majority of Indonesian is students and kenshusei from Fukuoka and surroundings suburbs. My interest, among others, is on their effort and mobilization to construct the mosque amidst the alien religious and cultural surroundings. Through observations and conversations with the informants from this Muslim community I attempt to understand the interaction between the Muslims and the Japanese society that interestingly tolerant and accommodating toward foreigner and Islam in particular. This is a surprise as we are now witnessing the increasing Islam phobia in Europe and the United States. The increasing number of Muslims and the rapid increased of constructed mosque in Japan in the last two decades is an interesting phenomenon in which my own observation in Fukuoka should be situated. It is likely that slowly but surely a more diverse and pluralistic society is currently developing in Japan.

  • Research Seminar No.127, 7 May 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「“Koshikijima no Toshidon” and the UNESCO」
     FOSTER Michael
    (Indiana University)

      In September 2009, thirteen Japanese traditions were added to the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. One of these was “Koshikijima no Toshidon,” a New Year’s Eve ritual performed on the small island of Shimokoshiki-jima off the southwest coast of Japan. What effect does recognition by an international body such as UNESCO have on a local tradition in a small, relatively isolated community? How does a global designation affect the way the islanders perceive and perform their own “intangible cultural heritage”? What are their fears and expectations for the future? Will tourism increase, and if so, what will happen to the tradition? What does this mean for a relatively isolated island community confronting a rapid decline in population? This paper will introduce Toshidon, and then explore how the islanders have responded to UNESCO’s recognition. The material presented is based on ongoing fieldwork in the community of Teuchi, including residence on the island since December of 2011.

  • Research Seminar No.126, 16 April 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「The oceanographic cruise and the sea based on past experience」
     ICHIKAWA Toshihiro
    (Faculty of Science, Kagoshima University)

      Because I specialized in oceanography I had an opportunity to go to the North Pacific, the Bering Sea, the South Pacific, and the Indian Ocean by training ship and research ship. I spent approximately 1500 days in the various ship but I joined most in a cruise of Keitenmaru, Kagoshima University. As for the work in the ship including seasickness and the experience at the visiting foreign port during the long term cruise are unforgettable and good memory for me. The oceanographic study does not readily progress, but is quite attractive. I would like to report the oceanographic cruise and the sea based on past experience.

  • Research Seminar No.125, 12 March 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「A retrospection ? the Amami Access Centre and my research」
     YAMADA Makoto
    (Faculty of Law, Economic and Humanities, Kagoshima University)

      There was a dramatic change of the legislative framework for Japanese national universities in the early 2000’s. After then, Kagoshima University increased its use of the Amami Islands, which are located between Kyusyu and Okinawa, as a basis for research and education. As one of the people involved in the process from the early stages, if I look back, I feel like I have witnessed a historic change in Japanese national universities and their surroundings and a mitigation of the nervous historical relationship between Kagoshima and Amami Islands.
      The Amami Access Centre was established at the same time that I was involved in two research projects on Amami, one funded with a JSPS grant, the other an interfaculty research project of Kagoshima University. However these were both started for different reasons and developed quite separately. In spite of that, as one of the masterminded behind all three projects, I feel proud that as a result my contribution has been able to heighten our university’s presence in the islands, which until then had not been so great for both historical reasons and also that other universities had already forged connections with the islands. From a personal perspective, my own Amami-based research had also been limited to just one sensational paper written long ago before that interfaculty project began. Since then I have had the opportunity to visit Amami on many occasions mostly for meetings or to give classes at the access centre, although the amount of times I have been able to conduct research there is however relatively few. In fact, as it turns out, the most I have been able to study about Amami has been from student’s reports in class. In this way, the connection between my research and the access centre has grown, for which I am extremely grateful to my students.

  • Research Seminar No.124, 29 February 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Action, Pedagogy, Theory: A Commentary on Pacific Islander Studies」
     Keith L. Camacho
    (Department of Asian American Studies, University of California, Los Angeles)

      This talk explores the making of Pacific Islander Studies in the continental United States, with an emphasis on California. As a burgeoning academic field, Pacific Islander Studies partly draws from Pacific Studies and Pacific Islands Studies, with its antecedents in the Cold War brands of anthropology and area studies. In these and related studies, Pacific Islanders are often understood as discrete, indigenous collectives, whose notions of place and power reside in the various atolls and archipelagoes of the region. Notwithstanding the contributions of diaspora and migration scholars, however, very little research has examined Pacific Islander communities beyond these locales, and especially in the continental U.S. This talk examines, then, the various intellectual, historical, and political formations of Pacific Islander Studies in California, an area where some of the most robust articulations and contestations of this new field have taken place. A central aspect of these debates has been the methodological turn to ethnic studies and indigenous studies, and to the ways in which their analytical categories, institutional capacities, and political praxes advance (or not) Pacific Islander calls for decolonization and social justice.

  • Research Seminar No.123, 20 February 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Wonderful marine world for geology」
     OHKI Kimihiko
    (the Kagoshima University Museum)

      In the early 1970’s, I collected a lot of bottom surface sediments of sea areas by the research vessel “Keiten-maru and Kagoshima-maru” owned by the Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University. I clarified the sedimentary environments of Kagoshima Bay from sedimentological and paleoecological point of view and published the results in South Pacific Study in 1989. In the period from 1981 to 1993, marine ecological study on the habitat of Nautilus pompilius, the Monbusho International Scientific Research Program were carried out in south Pacific and the results were published in five Occasional Papers, Kagoshima University Research Center for the south Pacific. I would like to speak about brief outline of these projects.

  • Research Seminar No.122, 9 February 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「Prehistoric development of domestication studied by isotope analysis of fossil bone from archaeological sites around the East China Sea」
     MINAGAWA Masao
    (Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University)

      Radionuclides from nuclear power plants explosion remind us that our life is directly depended on natural products from land or ocean ecosystems. Generally it is not easy to recognize such relationship between human life and natural substances unless specific indicators like pollutants are occasionally available. Recently, stable isotope analysis has become more relevant to reveal biological origin and resources common in an ecosystem, because carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes can be an ideal tracers reflecting initial states of the ecosystem and already applied for plant and animal ecology as well as ecological anthropology. In this lecture, a case study to study ancient human behavior related with domestication of animals and trading across the East China Sea will be presented. Isotopic analyses of fossil bones from archaeological sites showed different dietary pattern of pig or boar depend on the sites and the age, suggesting that in China, Korean peninsular and Ryukyu islands had developed each unique feeding methods to use domesticated boar or pigs in each history. General advantages and disadvantages to apply isotopic analysis method for various subjects will be also summarized.

  • Research Seminar No.121, 16 January 2012
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    「The plant life-types of coastal vegetation in Chuuk and Nansei Islands」
     KAWANISHI Motohiro
    (Faculty of Education, Kagoshima University)

      The coastal vegetation that established in boundary between sea and land is one of the characteristic elements of island landscape. In general, growth of many kinds of plants is restricted in coastal environment i.e. high salinity, poor soil, wind damage and ground instability. Therefore, species composition of coastal plant community often is very simple. On the other hand, species composition and structure of the coastal plant communities vary among the topographical or geographical condition. I will compare life type spectrum of the coastal plants in Chuuk islands and Nansei Islands, and discuss ecological commonality and the diversity of the coastal vegetation.

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