Record of activities in 2010 at KURCPI

  • Research Seminar No.110, 6 December
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    uVenicefs Rule on Cretev
    (Faculty of Law, Economics and the Humanities, Kagoshima U.)

    @@The northern Italian city-republic of Venice, which had prospered from the Levantine trade in the medieval period, maintained overseas territories in the Adriatic and eastern Mediterranean for a few centuries. Though most ports and islands under the Venetian dominion were merely support bases along the trading routes, many Venetian nobles and citizens moved to Crete, one of the biggest islands in Venicefs maritime empire, where they owned vast landed estates and produced wheat and wine from the early 13th century. Encountering some revolts by the Cretan people led by local elites, Venetian rule and colonization on Crete has been interpreted as a model of that for modern colonies by European states. This report focuses on the system of Venetian control on Crete and the relationship between the Catholic immigrants from Venice, the Greek Orthodox people of the island and the Venetian government, and then, compares Venicefs rule on Crete with that of the Amami Islands by the Satsuma clan in the early modern period.

  • Research Seminar No.109, 8 November
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    uVisual record of Kagoshima Maru II -Maiden Voyage to Naples half a century ago-v
    @TAGUCHI Kazuo
    (Professor Emeritus, Kagoshima U.)

    @@In 1960 the training ship Kagoshima Maru, which belongs to Kagoshima University, made her maiden voyage from Japan to Naples, Italy, via the Suez Canal. While navigating, all the cadets always stood on navigation watch, and they practiced fishing by tuna long-line and trawling in the Northern Indian Ocean. They also made oceanographic research and practiced tuna canning. The ship called at Colombo, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and Singapore on the return trip for supplies and relaxation.
    @@This voyage was completed in 102 days and proved the excellent performance of every facility, including the safety of the shipfs hull.
    @@The speaker originally recorded the voyage with a 16 mm film camera and edited the video images assisted by some volunteers for sound effect to make this video. Today the DVD edition is shown and discussed with the audience about the operation of the training ship.
    @@Another purpose of calling at Naples was requested by the authorities of Kagoshima City under the Kagoshima-Naples Sister City relationship, and some members of the delegation boarded the ship to attend the sister city ceremony in Naples.

  • Research Seminar No.108, 21 September
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    uWritten in Stone: What the stone artefacts of an ancient archaeological site can tell usv
    @Marion Campbell

    @@Lapita is the term used for the earliest culture identified in the western Pacific Islands. Moreover, archaeological studies in the western Pacific, including Fiji have focussed on pottery analysis as the primary cultural marker. Analysis of stone artefacts has concentrated on adzes and on locating the source of their rock types. Similarly, sourcing of chert and obsidian artefacts as a means of tracing trade and population movements has received much attention. This approach has been adopted, in part, because most Lapita-period sites have been deficient in stone artefacts.  A current trend is to move away from studies of individual artefacts and their form to concentrate on methods of production and resource strategies.
    @@The early Lapita site at Bourewa, on the south-west coast of Viti Levu, Fiji, has provided a collection of almost 1700 stone artefacts which exhibit a wide range of types and attest to multiple activities occurring at the site.  Detailed analysis of this collection has been under-taken combining the older approaches of classification and an assessment of production methods and resource utilisation.  Over three-quarters of the flaked material has been either re-touched or has fine wear patterns that indicate the way it was used.  Many pieces show multiple use and functions.
    @@Analysis of the distribution of these artefacts from the site has identified focus areas for particular activities and changes through time. This is the first time that such an attempt has been made for a Lapita site and is especially important because at present Bourewa is accepted as the earliest occupation site yet discovered in Fiji.

  • Research Seminar No.107, 12 July
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    uTongan Political Reform: the Odd-One-Out among the Pacific Islandsv
    @Ian Campbell
    (Research Center for the Pacific Islands, Kagoshima University)

    @@The constitutions of the Pacific Island states are mostly the product of decolonisation in the third quarter of the 20th century and capture the values that were current at the time. Several of them have undergone minor modifications since though usually without discarding the received constitution and redesigning the political charter from first principles.

    @@Tonga is the exceptional case, having a constitution that is about 100 years older than those of the other states. It was formulated in 1875 by a non-Tongan, and showed almost no engagement with Tongan culture as it was at the time. On the contrary, the idea was to show that Tonga had moved away from its culture in its new political construction.

    @@However, after having had over 125 years to assimilate culture and constitution by the end of the 20th century political pressures were making it necessary for some changes to be made. The 1875 constitution preserved a strongly hereditary element in government which gave stability, but which also encouraged the idea that king and nobles had a natural right to rule. Therefore, for about 20 years the regime was able to ignore or resist suggestions that democratic reforms would be desirable or necessary.

    @@The resistance to change ended abruptly as the aging king passed into a terminal decline, and power effectively shifted to the next generation. At that point, members of the royal family seized control of the reform process. Legislation was passed in 2010 broadening popular participation in government, and restricting the powers of the king. The changes will come into effect with an election in November 2010.

    @@The effect of this reform is to create a constitution which is perhaps more intimately connected with Tongan culture than are the other constitutions of the Pacific, but also one which is much less democratic than might have been the case had reform been further delayed.

    uCapsicum used in Asiav
    @Sota Yamamoto
    (Research Center for the Pacific Islands, Kagoshima University

    @@@Domestication of the genus Capsicum dates back to 5,000-6,500 B.C. and people, such as the Olmecs, Toltecs and Aztecs, are known to have used Capsicum extensively since ancient times. After Columbus returned to the old world in 1493 with Capsicum, it soon spread from Spain to the other countries. C. annuum and C. frutescens are now widely cultivated throughout the world and are economically important as condiments, vegetables, and medicines. I would like to make a presentation about 1) the detailed usage of Capsicum as condiment, as vegetable, as medicine, as colorant, in popular beliefs, in agricultural rituals, in taboos, and in rice malt in Southeast and East Asia and 2) one possible hypothesis that C. frutescens possessing ShDH-B was introduced directly from the Americas via Oceania to Manila and it thereafter dispersed into the insular regions.

  • Research Seminar No.106, 14 June
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor
    @@Gozo Yoshimasu (Josai International University)
    @@I would like to begin my presentation with medieval monk Myoefs Letter to my dear island as a preface. Also, I would like to contribute some of my own thoughts for this occasion through my personal cine ? gFrom island to peninsula or from peninsula to islandh (this could be the title of my vision).
    @@Traveling from these islands ? Amami, Kakeroma, Moppo, Tokunoshima, Cheju-do, to the lake island of Innisfree in Sligo, Ireland, also to Paul Gauguinfs Bretagne ? the song of these islands spreads like the sound of waves. Finally to arrive in Kagoshima (is it my own or a common illusion?) is the beginning of a dream. This should be clarified ? yes, mountain of fire.

  • Research Seminar No.105, 17 May
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    uModernization of Japan and Kagoshimav

    MINAMURA Takeichi iKagoshima Universityj

    @@@The Japanese government had encouraged the active modernization policies since the Meiji period. This stimulated the development of modern businesses and enterprises in the property market, commercial market, labour market, and financial market especially in the capital region. The wave of modernization gradually spread to provincial agricultural and fishing districts. By the end of 1890s, modernization had reached to the national scale. However, the samurai population filled the national majority. For Kagoshima where farming communities predominate, the route to modernization had been slow and fell behind the national averages considerably. The primary reason lies behind the deeply rooted post-domain (han) ruling systems, customs, and other socially related matters. This persistence dragged the reformation of farmersf awareness and furthermore lagging behind in the improvement of the production technology and enhancement in productivity. Industry and commerce also suffered because of lack of funds and also due to markets (property, commercial, labour, and financial) being reliant upon the distant capital city. In Kagoshima there were no businesses that could be described as modern. In terms of politics and the policies, there were stronger tendencies towards conservatism. From social and cultural point of view, modernization lagged behind other prefectures, and likewise education followed suit.
    @@@The democratization of agricultural, labour, educational reforms following World War II egreeted Kagoshima with the Meiji Restoration,f as was described back then, after the delay of 80 years. Albeit impeding development in monetary and commodity markets, retrospectively the small and medium enterprises and businesses, which comprised the majority, are rooted back to the rural farming and fishery practices reliant upon family labour and self-sufficiency. Nevertheless, modernization and globalization in Kagoshima is undeniably developing. The author will explore the light and the shadows of modernization, globalization, and the market economy.

    uTectonic plate boundaries and underground resourcesv

    NEDACHI Munetomo iKagoshima Universityj

    @@@Rocks contain all elements in the periodic table, but the consistency of elements are susceptible to change from a few fold to tens of thousands degrees more concentrated depending on the movement of the Earth. The mankind has efficiently utilized these as underground resources. The majority of these underground resources are the resultants of magma activities. However, not all magma activities are involved in underground resources. Since being involved in the Nankai (Southern Sea) Research Centre, the author frequently joined the extensive research team and conducted investigations in Papua New Guinea, Palau, Yap, and other western Pacific regions of island arcs which developed along the subduction boundaries between the oceanic plate and the continental plate. The research elucidated the characteristics of magma involved in the underground resources. The collaboration between the two institutes led to working alongside biologists on numerous occasions. This opened up opportunities to comprehensively appreciate the natural phenomena in question. The involvement facilitated and encouraged the planning of projects in 1) underground resources around primitive Earth tectonic plate boundaries and 2) excavation of ancient life forms. It helped to gain a foot in exploring the co-evolution of life and environment on primitive Earth.

  • Research Seminar No.104, 26 April
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor
    uEmbodied eNaturef and Adaptation to the Changing World in Central Islands, Fiji v
    KAWAI Toshimitsu iSOnoda Wemen's Universityj
    [ABSTRACT]Before contacting with Western countries, they seem to have lived in an ecologically harmonious world. Nowadays, Fiji is known as a well developed country among the South Pacific. The purpose of this report is to investigate how Fijians have adapted to the rapidly changing situations. Though it is sure that Fijian culture and society have changed drastically on the way to the colonization, urbanization, commercialization and so forth, native Fijians themselves still continue to distinguish the gFijian wayh from the gWestern wayh. Is this the resistance to foreigner@cultures as some scholars have insisted? I attach much importance to the continuation of traditional culture rather than the discontinuity between tradition and modernity. Especially, I focus on the cultural notion of Fijian gnatureh. The gnatureh means the state of balance supported by both sides. They think that everything in the world is being supported by gsidesh. The state of being means the circulation of life forth. This figurative image is also expressed as three sides (triangle) or four sides (square). In any way, the dualistic differentiation and the unity of the both sides is the basic mental image of Fijian culture. For example, they think that land and sea are supported each other, though they are mediated by the third, sky. A human body is also thought to be supported by the both sides, right and left, and they are supported and controlled by the head, the center of the body. In the same way, anything including human behaviors, customs, material cultures, animals, plants, and the other natural environments is believed to be the embodiment of the more basic image called gtovo in the headh. The Fijian tovo, they call it gtrue shapeh created by God, is distinguished from the other gfalse shapesh. Seeing from the native point of view, the process of modernization in Fiji was that of reorganization which was constructed on the base of gtovo in the headh.
  • Research Seminar No.103, 15 March
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor
    uSome strategy mistakes in research v
    HIDAKA Tetushi iRCPIKUj
    [ABSTRACT] One of the most serious aspects of any research study is planning. Studies should be planned with very careful thinking otherwise only poor results would be obtained. An additional talk on bleeding papaya will be also given.
    uHabu and infectious nematode in the Amami Islandsv
    MINAKAMI Korebumi (Kagoshima University School of Health Sciences)
    [ABSTRACT] Watae Line shares Japanese animal fauna between the Palearctic region north than this line and the south Orient ward of the@Tokara straits. As for the distribution of terrestrial venomous snakes, a Mamushi has habitation in Yakushima, Tanegashima in the north of the line, and a Habu has habitation in the southward of the Tokara strait. ?@A scientific name of HabuF @As for the Habu genus, the generic name was recently changed, and, Habu and Tokara-habu were classified in the adder department Mamushi subfamily Habu genus conventionally, that is, Habu is Protobothrops flavoviridis, Tokara-habu is Protobothrops tokarensis. By recent revision, Hime-habu became the high point Yama-habu genus, and scientific name was changed into Ovophis okinavensis. ?@Distribution of HabusF Tokara-habu inhabits in the Tokara chain of islands, and both Habu and Hime-habu inhabit in Amami-Oshima, Tokuyuki Island, and Habu inhabits in Kakeroma Island, Yoro Island, Uke Island, Edateku Island, and neither Habu nor Hime-habu has habitation in Kikai Island, Okinoerabu Island, Yoron Island. Although there are various opinions about the reason of specific distribution, but generally it is thought that it is caused by a rise and fall of sea level. ?Eating habitF @As for Hime-habu, amphibians and reptiles hold 81% whereas a roof rat and a brown rat hold 82.5% of all the food individual with the Habu. In addition, I understand that in the stages of development of the Habu, the kind of the bait changed. ?The sex ratio at the time of the hatching is maleF Female = 5F4, and the body length of Habu at the time was 350-410mm. Habu hatched after laying eggs in 45 days by the end of August from the end of July. ?Age/ Life span are measured from the the data, such as the body length of Habus captured, diameter of centra, rings of centra. If the copulation and laying eggs of the Habu was assumed once a year, I suggest that the life-span of female Habu was 7 years and its male Habu was 10 years. ?In addition, I also report it about ecdysis, poison, poison action and etc. The nematode, Strongyloides strerocoralis has a specific life cycle to have a self infection course and parasite on humans. Strongyloidiasis which was caused by this nematode was thought as a man and beast common infectious disease, but we confirmed that the cross infection between humans and dogs couldnft occur in the Amami Islands.
  • Islands ForumEInternational Symposium
    13 February
    " 400 years of Relationship between Satsuma and Ryukyu: the formation of arc chain sphere of the East Asian Archipelago - Summary and Prospects -"

    On 7th March 1609, the independent Ryukyu Kingdom (Okinawa) was invaded by the Satsuma feudal clan (Kagoshima) with some resistance. This has brought a deep and complicated relationship between the two. The consequence for the Ryukyus meant that they had to show an attitude of the allegiance to the Tokugawa shogunate and to the Chinese Ming dynasty. They also ceded Amami Islands to the world of Yamato, the mainland Japan. The invasion by the Satsuma brought the beginning of a new epoch in linking the islands chain from Ryukyu in the south to Hokkaido in the north: this marks the birth of what is now known as the Japanese (Arc) Chain Islands. This has not only impacted the history of Satsuma, Amami, and Okinawa but had influenced the Meiji Restoration, and appears as a concrete problem in the U.S. military rule, Amami and Okinawa return process to the mainland Japan in postwar days, the development axis or belt planning, and next state type governance system discussion as how this Ryukyu arc is recognized repeats. Several forums/conferences have taken place this year to discuss the gstarting points, facts and influenceshof these problems in various places. The overall consensus was that there was a vast accumulation of historical facts which need to be identified and be acknowledged, and some are still need to be examined for the next prospects. As the role of the university and the academic society, the summary work is meaningful approach. This forum aims to present keynote addresses and to hold a discussion with the participants concerning the viewpoints of those directly affected i.e. the Ryukyu and Amami people, and of the history and future of Kagoshima, Amami, and Okinawa.

    Keynote address
    • TOMIYAMA Kazuyuki (Faculty of Education, Ryukyu University)
      gLook back on Ryukyu aggression 400 years by Shimazu (Satsuma) - Transformation and interchange of early modern times East Asia sea area and the land -h
    • YUGE@Masami (Amami Islands hometown society for the study of the native district)
      "History awareness in the Amami-shoto Islands history and recognition- Further research theme including the relationships with other East Asiah
    • SUGIHARA Hiroshi (Kagoshima University, Faculty of Law and Literature)
      gWhat has been revealed from the discussion on the historical memorial event and 400 years relationships between Satsuma, Amami and Ryukyuh.
    • HARAGUCHI@Izumi (Kagoshima University, Faculty of Law and Literature)
      gOn Ryukyu and Satsuma relationship especially Amami Islands Governance by Satsuma of the late Tokugawa periodh
    • MAETOSHI Kiyoshi (China town government officer, Okino-erabu Island in Amami)
      g and Amami Islands- a prerequisite for discussing regional system study and political decisionh
    • Chair Parson:@NAGASHIMA Shunsuke (Kagoshima University, The Research Center for the Pacific Is. )
  • Research Seminar No.102, 25 January

    uFisheries Management in the Pacific Islands: Can fisheries resources remain the elifelinef for the Pacific Islanders?v
    Vina Ram Bidesi iUniversity of South Pacific,RCPIKUj
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    [ABSTRACT]@The 22 developing states and territories of the Pacific Islands region consist of only about 551,390 km2 of land spread across 30 million km2 of ocean that extends from north to south of the equator. The islands are linked and controlled by the marine environment.
    @The dependence of the Pacific Island countries upon the ocean resources has been a vital part of their cultural, social and economic development. The coastal and marine ecosystems of the region are extremely important habitats for sustaining the livelihoods. With limited arable land and poor soils in the low-lying islands, reliance on marine resources is extremely important. As the population increases, this dependence becomes even more critical. The ocean is seen as the elifelinef that gprovides the greatest opportunities for economic developmenth (SPREP 2002). Economic activities such as fisheries, tourism and trade are highly dependent on the marine environment.
    @The seminar will focus on the critical dependence of Pacific Islanders on the fisheries resources, to show that while there has been much progress towards the management of fisheries, the question still remains whether the sector can continue to be the elifelinef. Using examples and research experiences influenced by social, economic and environmental policy perspective, policy gaps and future research interests are indentified. The nature and structure of the fisheries sector will be described and policy initiatives will be outlined to show that two parallel systems exist. While there are attempts to achieve a more integrated approach, fisheries management and development goals will still not be achieved unless the design of an effective fisheries management regime is considered for both coastal and offshore fisheries.

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