Record of activities in 2005 at KURCPI

  • Research Seminar No.65, 5th Dec.
    "Scrub Typhus in Japan and Southeast Asia"

    TAKAHASHI Mamoru (Kawagoe High School)
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    [Abstract] Scrub Typhus, better known as chigger-borne rickettsiosis, is an acute, febrile infectious disease caused by infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi. This disease, which is transmitted by the bite of infected larval chiggers, was first described in Japan in 1879 by Baelz and Kawakami (1879), and is primarily distributed in Southeast Asia and the southwestern Pacific regions. Between the early 1900's and 1964, many epidemics of human scrub typhus infection were recorded in Japan. Mean annual prevalence of the disease declined from 1965 to 1974, amounting to fewer than 20 new cases per year. However, between 1975 and 1984 the incidence of scrub typhus increased dramatically with outbreaks increasing to new record levels each year. This remarkable resurgence is suspected to be due to an increase in number of vector chigger colonies that carry O. tsutsugamushi.
    Whereas most stages in the life cycle of trombiculid mites are free-living, unfed larva is the only parasitic stage that feeds on humans and rodents. O. tsutsugamushi is considered to be transmitted vertically from infected female parents to the next generation via transovarian transmission. In the case of O. tsutsugamushi-positive testing in enlarged chiggers recovered from rodents, a small doubt always remains as to which O. tsutsugamushi-negative unfed larvae acquired rickettsiae while feeding on the rickettsemic field rodents. The chiggers then transmitted this infection transstadially to succeeding life stages, but not vertically to larvae in the following generation.

  • Islands ForumESymposium , 29th Oct
    " Future of Island Songs"
  • Research Seminar No.64, 17th Oct.
    "What is the Pacific Island countries?"
    KOBAYASHI Izumi , (Osaka Gakuin Univ.)
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    [Abstract] There are more than 20 political units, including 12 independent island countries in the Pacific. The countries which have emerged in the Pacific are small, isolate and under developed. So International society had showed few interest in the Pacific area an age ago.
    However, island countries have distinguished themselves as political actors by their united power to the world for the last two decades. The existence of them would also have been important to Japan as our neighbor countries which have common issues in the Pacific in recent years.
    This time, a lecture will be given to understand about the Pacific island countries in terms of traditional social structure, current economic activities, circumstances of the nation building and regional politics.

  • Research Seminar No.63, 12th Sep.
    "Outlines of lifestyle-related diseases in Amami Island regions and its preventive activities"
    TAKEZAKI Toshiro, (Kagoshima Univ. Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences)
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    [Abstract] The proportion of people with long life in Amami Island regions is relatively high, compared with those in Japan and Kagoshima Prefecture. On the other hand, the average life span in females of Amami is higher than those of Japan and Kagoshima, but lower in males. These facts mean Amami is a suitable region for longevity of aged people after the survival through host and environmental factors, while it is important for active society to keep good health condition of people in manhood. The death rate in manhood of Amami is increasing, especially in males, although current standardized death rates of lifestyle-related diseases in Amami is not high than those in Japan. Therefore, the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases has a higher priority in Amami. We are planning to conduct a molecular epidemiological study on lifestyle-related diseases in Amami, which provides Amami people fruitful information on disease prevention according to individual susceptibility, using environmental and SNPs host factors. Furthermore, Yoron, Wadomari and Setouchi Towns of Amami are conducting health promotion projects, using Thalasso-therapy, with intervention study to clarify its effects.

  • Research Seminar No.62, 25th July
    "The State of Crop Production and Mungbean (Vigna radiata L) Research in Bangladesh"
    KARIM Abdul, (Kagoshima Univ. RCPI )
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    [Abstract]Bangladesh is an overpopulated country with about 900 persons/km2. Because of its high population pressure, the country has to pay major focus on cereal production. Most of the cropping patterns are dominated by rice. More than 90 % of the arable land is brought under cultivation, and there is a little scope for increasing production horizontally (i.e. by bringing more land under cultivation). Recently, Bangladesh achieved self sufficiency in cereal production. Vegetables production trend is also positive for its ready market, high demand and availability of good variety, though fruits production remains static. Production of grain legumes (pulses) and oilseeds declined sharply, mostly for decreasing of cultivation area.
    Pulses play an important role for supplying vegetable protein to the common people. Pulse soup in everyday meal and snacks of various kinds are very popular. To meet the demand, the country has to import more than 50% of its requirement for pulses, spending hard currency. There are many species of pulses in Bangladesh, broadly- (i) winter pulse, e.g. grasspea, chickpea, lentil, garden pea, Frenchbean, cowpea, etc. and (ii) summer pulse, eg. mungbean and blackgram. As a summer pulse, mungbean is considered as one of the most popular pulses for its high palatability and wider uses. The growth period of mungbean is short (~ 60 days) and it can be grown in both early (kharif I ) and late summer (kharif II). Mungbean is also grown in between winter crops and summer rice (amon rice) to minimize competition with cereals. Moreover, mungbean can be grown successfully with maize and sugarcane, as intercropping, with a minimum competition with those main crops.
    Despite numerous advantages, mungbean production is decreasing. This is mainly because, with the expansion of irrigation facilities, rice area has been increased in good soils, and other crops including mungbean are pushing to marginal lands. Moreover, as a tropical crop, mungbean faces many biotic and abiotic stresses during its growth. The major stresses are low nutrient status of the soil, water stress, waterlogging, salinity and mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV). Strategic researches are going on with partner organizations to develop MYMV resistant short duration varieties that perform well under specific environmental conditions. There is a collection of about 1000 genotypes to accomplish the job. Recently government has also taken a step to popularize crop diversification program. It is presumed that with the adoption of crop diversification policy and the development of problem specific technology, the area and production of pulses will increase in near future.

  • Research Seminar No.61, 27th Jun.
    "Succession of whale-carcass communities"
    YAMAMOTO Tomoko , (Kagoshima Univ. Faculty of Fisheries )
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    [Abstract] When large mammalian carcasses sink to the bottom of the deep sea, decaying fat produces sulfides and methane gas, providing conditions needed for a chemosynthetic ecosystem relying on chemosynthetic bacteria as basic producers. There are two types of chemosynthetic communities: hydrothermal vent communities formed around hot vents at plate formation regions or submarine volcanoes, and cold-seep communities formed where plates collide and cold interstitial water seeps out due to compression. The benthic animals belonging specifically to chemosynthetic ecosystems, typified by Lamellibrachia satsuma in Kagoshima Bay, have evolved to obtain necessary nutrients by forming symbiotic relationships with chemosynthetic bacteria inside their bodies. Whale-carcass community depending on corps of whales is thought to be stepping stone of chemosynthetic communities. We monitored the whale-carcass community on which corps of 12 whales stranded on the coast of Oura,Kagoshima on January 2002 to test the stepping stone hypothesis and quantify the structure of whale-carcass community.

  • Research Seminar No.60, 30th May.
    "On the Recovery of the Remains of the Dead Soldiers after the Asia-Pacific War"
    NISHIMURA Akira (Kagoshima Univ. Department of Law, Economics and Humanities)
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    [Abstract] Chidorigafuchi Cemetery of the War Dead lies near Yasukuni Jinja shrine where often oomes up journalistically for Prime Minister Koizumis visiting. This cemetery places a fraction of those ashes of the fallen soldiers under the Asia-Pacific War, which have not been identified or found takers. Those ashes were recovered from the battle fields by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the gathering projects were undertook mostly three times and continued intermittently thereafter.
    However, those projects or practices have scarcely been dealt with at all in the region of research of irei, the memorial for war dead in Japan since Yasukuni shrine and Chukonhi monuments have been main issues in relation to the constitutional separation of state and religion. It nowadays builds to understand the reality of the memorials by bereaved family and former soldiers in the region of regional history and folklore research and to have consensus on considering those diversities. This paper, on the basis of research direction as above, tries to understand the recovery practices of remains not only as a relief plan of the government but also as human agency of the living towards the dead in terms of anthropology of religion.

  • Research Seminar No.59, 18th April.
    "Conservation of endangered animals and resurrection of extinct animals with reproductive biotechnologies"
    OOKUTSU Shoji, (Kagoshima Univ. )
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor
  • Research Seminar No.58, 14th February.
    "Automatic recording of the volcano and smoking in Nansei Islands and Philippine"
    KINOSHITA Kisei, (Kagoshima Univ. )
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor
  • 1st Conference on Small Island Cultures 7th-9th February 2005.
  • Research Seminar No.57, 24th January.
    "The autonomous-government of the Isle of Man, and the peculiarity of language culture" HARA Kiyoshi, (Joshibi University of Art and Design )
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    The Isle of Man located between Ireland and the British Island is a British Royal dependancy and does not belong to the United Kingdom (UK). The autonomous government is functioning, having original currency, a mailing system, telephone and gas companies. The Manx language, one of Celtic languages is conserved, serving as a symbol of cultural identity. As a territory of tax haven, it became an active financial center. Although the population is only 71 000, it may be called an entire independent country. It also has cultural vitality.
    Jersey Island, located in the Channel Islands beside the Normandy Peninsula of France is in the situation similar to the Isle of Man.
    Probably Ishigaki Island and Miyako Island in Okinawa, are culturally in the similar situation, and an autonomous govenment like the Isle of Man or Jersey Island may be possible.

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