Record of activities in 2004 at KURCPI

  • Research Seminar No.56, 13 December
    "Analyzing Actual State of Stress and Determining Afective Stressors in Agricultural Workers"
    UEDA Atsushi (KUMAMOTO University)
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    The collaborative questionnaire survey for analyzing actual state of stress and determining affective stressors in agricultural workers (662 for male and 1084 for female) was carried out. Among those, 48% male and 59% female felt perceived stress, with higher prevalence rates in the younger age group than in elders. Affective stressors were found in factors related to the job demand category by Karasekユs psychological work model and related to agricultural work elements and life-events from agricultural management and rural living. The multiple regression analysis using those items indicated the most affective factor for disturbance of Quality of life (QOL) was the perceived stress, and for improvement of QOL social support was essential.
    According to the results we proposed a comprehensive stress control model for agricultural workers focused on creating a network system to connect various resources of social support in the rural and urban communities.

  • Research Seminar No.55, 22 November
    "Malaria Control Project in Vanuatu: From Cultural Anthropological Perspective"
    SHIRAKAWA Chihiro (Faculty of Humanities, Niigata University)
    16:30-, The Interdivisional Education and Research Building , 5th Floor

    Vanuatu is an island country with some 200,000 population, located approximately 2,500 kilometers north-east of Australian continent. The country is also located on the eastern edge of the worldユs malaria distribution area, and the problem of the disease continues to be one of the major health issues among the people. Vanuatu consists of some 80 islands. Due to this geographical condition, there are numbers of areas that are hard to access. It is therefore difficult to implement large scale メtop-downモ malaria control activities. Instead of such activities, the government has been promoting the activities based on the community participation. Under this policy, the malaria control project using insecticide impregnated mosquito nets has been conducted since 1991. My presentation will focus on the project, and discuss about its problems from cultural anthropological perspective.

  • Islands Forum・Symposium , 10 July.
    " 'Symbiosis' of Human Being and Nature in South Pacific"
  • Research Seminar No.50, 24 May.
    "Modelling Poverty Dimensions of Fiji's Urban Informal Sector Operators"
    Mahendra Reddy (RCPI)

    Growing poverty is a cause of concern for international, regional and local organisations and policy makers. The growth of the urban informal sector resulting from the urbanisation process has also contributed to the rise in urban poverty. The rise in urban informal economy has both beneficial and detrimental effects on the urban formal economy. It has been argued that the urban informal sector plays an important role in poverty alleviation though stark cases of poverty are evident in the urban informal sector. This duality needs to be examined in light of the socio economic factors of the urban informal population. This study utilises primary data from two cities and a town to examine the contribution of the urban informal sector to employment creation and poverty alleviation. The findings reveal a significant positive contribution of the informal sector towards poverty alleviation and income generation. The data is further utilised to examine the household specific factors affecting poverty in the informal sector.

  • Research Seminar No.49, 12 April.
    "A novel PrPSC-protease produced by Streptomyces sp"
    Tatsuzo Oka (Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University)

    We have isolated and characterized a perchloric acid soluble protein (PSP) from the cytosolic fraction of rat liver (RL-PSP). The cDNA sequences of PSP from mammals show a high similarity to members of a new hypothetical family (YER057c/YJGF family) of small proteins whose function is presently unknown. The high degree of evolutionary conservation of these proteins may reflect an involvement in basic cellular regulation. Furthermore, we have crystallized a RL-PSP and determined the structure of PSP protein. A monomer structure of the PSP consist of 2 a-helices and 6 b-sheets. Interestingly the structure of the PSP looks like to the structure of PrPSC which consist of 2 a-helices and 4 b-sheets. Furthermore, the chemical characters of the PSP , which are the heat-stability and the proteinase-K resistance, were same to that of PrPSC. These results at least demonstrate that PSP can become a model protein of as a substrate of PrPSC-protease. In this study, we screened the microbial to obtain the PrPSC-protease. As a result, the streptomyces SP which excrete the PrPSC-protease was isolated and the PrPSC-protease was isolated and characterized.

  • Research Seminar No.48, 15 March.
    "Bodiversity and its conservation in the Galapagos Islands"
    ITOW Syuzo (Professor Emeritus, Nagasaki Unversity)

    The biota of the Galapagos Islands is disharmonic and abounds with endemic taxa, due to geographically remote isolation from the continental source area. The southeast tradewind casts a rainwhadow on vegetation zonation, bringing much more moisture to the windward side of islands than to the leeward side.
    The concept of biodiversity comprises two aspects: systematic diversity and ecological diversity. The systematic diversity is conceived by inter-island speciation and speciation along the vegetation zones. The ecological diversity comprises two aspects: species diversity of biotic community (Alpha diversity in Whittaker's terminology) and species turnover between communities (Beta diversity). The alpha diversity is strikingly low due to disharmonic constitution of the flora. The beta diversity is higher in the windward side of island than in the leeward side.
     A tree-like species of Scalesia (Compositae) has evolved in the humid mid-elevations, and its monospecific forest dies back synchronously in stand-level at its maturity and a new cohort starts again to built the next generation. Such a recruiting pattern is a self-cyclic, or buildup-and-collapse, succesion, which is unique to remote oceanic islands. A part of ecosystems of the islands are threatened by intentionally introduced mammals like goats and donkeys and by accidentally introduced animal and plants. Since their inaugurations in 1964 and 1968, the Charles Darwin Research Station and the National Park Service have been cooperatively struggling for the conservation of indigeneous biota and ecosystems.

  • Research Seminar No.47, 1 March.
    "Ecology of Tropical Rainforest: Stand Dynamics during the last 25 years"
    YONEDA Tsuyoshi (Kagoshima University, Faculty of Agriculture)

    Landscape in a forest area has largely changed under the Suharto regime. We could often see the scenario that selective logging area transferred to the oil palm plantation in Sumatra. Depleted forest can be a target of the site of Aforestation/Reforestation CDM program under Kyoto Protocol through rough logging of remained trees. Hereby, we can say that the last 25 years was so harmful period for a forest, though it would be only tiny time for an emergent tree with long-life cycle. It looks that unfairness in income tends to increase. Forest management system in Indonesia would retrograde under the new policy of decentralization system policy. Recent human and natural impacts on tropical rain forest will be lectured.

  • Research Seminar No.46, 16 February.
    "Christianity and Folk Life in the Philippines"
    KAWATA Makito (KURCPI)

    The Philippines is one of the Christian countries in Southeast Asia, and more than 80 % of the population is Roman Catholic. It is said that Christian way of life is seen not only in the catechism and rituals in the Church, but penetrate into every scene of everyday-life, which forms so-called "Folk Catholicism". However, this concept that refer Christianity's connotation of folk life or Christianization of folk life tells half-side of life world of Philippine folk. If we see situations from the viewpoint of life world itself, we must be able to draw the design differently. In this presentation, at first, I introduce historical background of Christianization. Then illustrate Christian rituals which has Christian originals but at the same time developed at folk level, and folk practice such as magic which seems to be unrelated to Catholicism at first glance. These materials tell that ordinary people do not necessarily consist of their daily activities with the dichotomy of "folk" and "Catholicism". The consideration will be taken the possibility to see folk life as it is.

  • Research Seminar No.45, 26 January.
    "What is the Pacific Islands in Japan - - On the Islands of Ogasawara Village and How to Promote them --"

    Ogasawara Villlage has the largest EEZ and every her islands are scattered around in the Pacific Ocean. We discuss on the comparative recognition concerning sub-tropical islands between Ogasawara, Amami, and Okinawa. The establishment of research linkage is needed between these island group. Can we prepare some concrete proposal on the reseach project ? Next main theme is the promotion matter. under the specific location, history, and environmental protection.

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